It is impractical to discuss security in broad strokes since the idea represents a vast range of concepts, tools, and procedures, none of which apply universally. Choosing among them requires a precise idea of what your goals are. Securing a system starts with answering a few questions. Rushing headlong into implementing an arbitrary set of tools runs the risk of focusing on the wrong aspects of security.
It is usually best to determine a specific goal. A good approach to help with that determination starts with the following questions:
- What are you trying to protect? The security policy will be different depending on whether you want to protect computers or data. In the latter case, you also need to know which data.
- What are you trying to protect against? Is it leakage of confidential data? Accidental data loss? Revenue loss caused by disruption of service?
- Also, who are you trying to protect against? Security measures will be quite different for guarding against a typo by a regular user of the system versus protecting against a determined external attacker group.
The term “risk” is customarily used to refer collectively to these three factors: what to protect, what should be prevented, and who might make this happen. Modeling the risk requires answers to these three questions. From this risk model, a security policy can be constructed and the policy can be implemented with concrete actions.
Extra constraints are also worth taking into account as they can restrict the range of available policies. How far are you willing to go to secure a system? This question has a major impact on which policy to implement. Too often, the answer is only defined in terms of monetary costs, but other elements should also be considered, such as the amount of inconvenience imposed on system users or performance degradation.
Once the risk has been modeled, you can start thinking about designing an actual security policy.
There are extremes that can come into play when deciding the level of security protections to adopt. On one hand, it can be extremely simple to provide basic system security.
For instance, if the system to be protected only comprises a second-hand computer, the sole use of which is to add a few numbers at the end of the day, deciding not to do anything special to protect it would be quite reasonable. The intrinsic value of the system is low and the value of the data are zero since they are not stored on the computer. A potential attacker infiltrating this system would only gain a calculator. The cost of securing such a system would probably be greater than the cost of a breach.
At the other end of the spectrum, you might want to protect the confidentiality of secret data in the most comprehensive way possible, trumping any other consideration. In this case, an appropriate response would be the total destruction of the data (securely erasing the files, shredding of the hard disks to bits, then dissolving these bits in acid, and so on). If there is an additional requirement that data must be kept in store for future use (although not necessarily readily available), and if cost still isn’t a factor, then a starting point would be storing the data on iridium–platinum alloy plates stored in bomb-proof bunkers under various mountains in the world, each of which being (of course) both entirely secret and guarded by entire armies.
Extreme though these examples may seem, they would nevertheless be an adequate response to certain defined risks, insofar as they are the outcome of a thought process that takes into account the goals to reach and the constraints to fulfill. When coming from a reasoned decision, no security policy is more, or less, respectable than any other.
Coming back to a more typical case, an information system can be segmented into consistent and mostly independent subsystems. Each subsystem will have its own requirements and constraints, and so the risk assessment and the design of the security policy should be undertaken separately for each. A good principle to keep in mind is that a small attack surface is easier to defend than a large one. The network organization should also be designed accordingly: the sensitive services should be concentrated on a small number of machines, and these machines should only be accessible via a minimal number of routes or check-points. The logic is straightforward: it is easier to secure these checkpoints than to secure all the sensitive machines against the entirety of the outside world. It is at this point that the usefulness of network filtering (including by firewalls) becomes apparent. This filtering can be implemented with dedicated hardware but a simpler and more flexible solution is to use a software firewall such as the one integrated in the Linux kernel.