3.1. What Is Linux and What Is It Doing?
The term “Linux” is often used to refer to the entire operating system, but in reality, Linux is the operating system kernel, which is started by the boot loader, which is itself started by the BIOS/UEFI. The kernel assumes a role similar to that of a conductor in an orchestra—it ensures coordination between hardware and software. This role includes managing hardware, processes, users, permissions, and the file system. The kernel provides a common base to all other programs on the system and typically runs in ring zero, also known as kernel space.
Let’s quickly review the various tasks handled by the Linux kernel.
3.1.1. Driving Hardware
The kernel is tasked, first and foremost, with controlling the computer’s hardware components. It detects and configures them when the computer powers on, or when a device is inserted or removed (for example, a USB device). It also makes them available to higher-level software, through a simplified programming interface, so applications can take advantage of devices without having to address details such as which extension slot an option board is plugged into. The programming interface also provides an abstraction layer; this allows video-conferencing software, for example, to use a webcam regardless of its make and model. The software can use the Video for Linux (V4L) interface and the kernel will translate function calls of the interface into actual hardware commands needed by the specific webcam in use.
The kernel exports data about detected hardware through the
/sys/ virtual file systems. Applications often access devices by way of files created within
/dev/. Specific files represent disk drives (for instance,
/dev/sda), partitions (
/dev/sda1), mice (
/dev/input/mouse0), keyboards (
/dev/input/event0), sound cards (
/dev/snd/*), serial ports (
/dev/ttyS*), and other components.
There are two types of device files: block and character. The former has characteristics of a block of data: It has a finite size, and you can access bytes at any position in the block. The latter behaves like a flow of characters. You can read and write characters, but you cannot seek to a given position and change arbitrary bytes. To find out the type of a given device file, inspect the first letter in the output of
ls -l. It is either
b, for block devices, or
c, for character devices:
$ ls -l /dev/sda /dev/ttyS0
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 8, 0 Mar 21 08:44 /dev/sda
crw-rw---- 1 root dialout 4, 64 Mar 30 08:59 /dev/ttyS0
As you might expect, disk drives and partitions use block devices, whereas mouse, keyboard, and serial ports use character devices. In both cases, the programming interface includes device-specific commands that can be invoked through the ioctl system call.
3.1.2. Unifying File Systems
File systems are a prominent aspect of the kernel. Unix-like systems merge all the file stores into a single hierarchy, which allows users and applications to access data by knowing its location within that hierarchy.
The starting point of this hierarchical tree is called the root, represented by the “
/” character. This directory can contain named subdirectories. For instance, the
home subdirectory of
/ is called
/home/. This subdirectory can, in turn, contain other subdirectories, and so on. Each directory can also contain files, where the data will be stored. Thus,
/home/buxy/Desktop/hello.txt refers to a file named
hello.txt stored in the
Desktopsubdirectory of the
buxy subdirectory of the
home directory, present in the root. The kernel translates between this naming system and the storage location on a disk.
Unlike other systems, Linux possesses only one such hierarchy, and it can integrate data from several disks. One of these disks becomes the root, and the others are mounted on directories in the hierarchy. (The Linux command is called
mount.) These other disks are then available under the mount points. This allows storing users’ home directories (traditionally stored within
/home/) on a separate hard disk, which will contain the
buxydirectory (along with home directories of other users). Once you mount the disk on
/home/, these directories become accessible at their usual locations, and paths such as
/home/buxy/Desktop/hello.txt keep working.
There are many file system formats, corresponding to many ways of physically storing data on disks. The most widely known are ext2, ext3, and ext4, but others exist. For instance, VFAT is the filesystem that was historically used by DOS and Windows operating systems. Linux’s support for VFAT allows hard disks to be accessible under Kali as well as under Windows. In any case, you must prepare a file system on a disk before you can mount it and this operation is known as formatting. Commands such as
mkfs stands for MaKe FileSystem) handle formatting. These commands require, as a parameter, a device file representing the partition to be formatted (for instance,
/dev/sda1, the first partition on the first drive). This operation is destructive and should be run only once, unless you want to wipe a filesystem and start fresh.
There are also network filesystems such as NFS, which do not store data on a local disk. Instead, data are transmitted through the network to a server that stores and retrieves them on demand. Thanks to the file system abstraction, you don’t have to worry about how this disk is connected, since the files remain accessible in their usual hierarchical way.
3.1.3. Managing Processes
A process is a running instance of a program, which requires memory to store both the program itself and its operating data. The kernel is in charge of creating and tracking processes. When a program runs, the kernel first sets aside some memory, loads the executable code from the file system into it, and then starts the code running. It keeps information about this process, the most visible of which is an identification number known as the process identifier (PID).
Like most modern operating systems, those with Unix-like kernels, including Linux, are capable of multi-tasking. In other words, they allow the system to run many processes at the same time. There is actually only one running process at any one time, but the kernel divides CPU time into small slices and runs each process in turn. Since these time slices are very short (in the millisecond range), they create the appearance of processes running in parallel, although they are active only during their time interval and idle the rest of the time. The kernel’s job is to adjust its scheduling mechanisms to keep that appearance, while maximizing global system performance. If the time slices are too long, the application may not appear as responsive as desired. Too short, and the system loses time by switching tasks too frequently. These decisions can be refined with process priorities, where high-priority processes will run for longer periods and with more frequent time slices than low-priority processes.
The kernel allows several independent instances of the same program to run, but each is allowed to access only its own time slices and memory. Their data thus remain independent.
3.1.4. Rights Management
Unix-like systems support multiple users and groups and allow control of permissions. Most of the time, a process is identified by the user who started it. That process is only permitted to take actions permitted for its owner. For instance, opening a file requires the kernel to check the process identity against access permissions (for more details on this particular example, see Section 3.4.4, “Managing Rights”).